Radiographic measurements. Traces from two representative participants illustrate x-ray angular measurements from normal (left) and flat-arched (right) foot posture. Lateral views (top) show: calcaneal inclination angle; calcaneal-first metatarsal angle; anterior posterior views (bottom) show: talonavicular coverage angle; talus second metatarsal angle. A – calcaneal inclination angle, B – calcaneal-first metatarsal angle, C – talo-navicular coverage angle, D – talus-second metatarsal angle. Angle A decreases with flat-arched foot posture; angle B, C and D increase with flat-arched foot posture, compared to the normal-arched foot posture.
Murley et al. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2009 2:22 doi:10.1186/1757-1146-2-22