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An analysis of Euroqol EQ-5D and Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire scores six months following podiatric surgery

Anthony J Maher1* and Timothy E Kilmartin2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Podiatric Surgery, County Health Partnerships, Park House Health and Social Care Centre, Burton Road, Carlton, Nottingham, NG4 3DQ, UK

2 Department of Podiatric Surgery, Derbyshire Community Health Service, Ilkeston Community Hospital, Heanor Road, Ilkeston, Derbyshire, DE7 8LN, UK

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Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2012, 5:17  doi:10.1186/1757-1146-5-17

Published: 9 July 2012



In the United Kingdom patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) have been adopted as a key measure of foot surgery outcomes. The intention of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of a regional outcome measure; the Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) and a generic measure; the EuroQol EQ-5D, in the context of day care Podiatric Surgery.


A prospective audit of 375 consecutive day care surgical admissions was undertaken. All patients attending for surgery, who agreed to participate, were included. Pre operation patients completed the MOXFQ and the EQ-5D. Both questionnaires were completed again at 6 months post operation. Additional data was collected on patient demographics, surgical procedures and complications.


Few complications were encountered and most patients (84%) returned for a final review 6 months post operation. Mean MOXFQ scores improved for each domain: pain; 51.7 pre-operation, reduced to 16.5 post-operation, walking; 50.2 reduced to 14.1 and social interaction; 45.7 reduced to 10.6. The minimal clinically important differences (MCID) estimates for the pain domain were exceeded by 82.6% of patients, while 74.8% exceeded the MCID for walking and 68.5% exceeded the MCID for social interaction. A small number of patients (2.9%) deteriorated across all three MOXFQ domains.

The EQ-5D Index, summary of health related quality of life, improved from 0.66 pre-operation to 0.86 post operation. The EQ-5D index MCID was exceeded by 79.2% of patients. Index scores deteriorated for 1.8% of patients following surgery. Effect sizes measured following surgery were largest for the MOXFQ domains: Walking; 1.39, Pain; 1.52 and Social Interaction: 1.39. The EQ-5D index effect size was 0.83. The EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) was not influenced by surgery.


Both the MOXFQ and EQ-5D index (but not the VAS) appear sensitive to changes in health status at 6 months following elective foot surgery. Both instruments were particularly responsive to changes in pain, mobility and activity or social interaction following treatment. The MOXFQ was developed specifically for foot surgery and as such appears to be the more sensitive instrument. However the generic EQ-5D may allow comparison of general health states in the wider health community. Both instruments when used together appear well suited to the measurement of change in perceived health status following foot surgery.