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This article is part of the supplement: 3rd Congress of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Community

Open Access Open Badges Keynote speaker presentation

In vivo, intrinsic kinematics of the foot and ankle

Toni Arndt12*, Chris Nester3, Paul Lundgren1, Arne Lundberg1 and Peter Wolf4

Author Affiliations

1 Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 14186, Sweden

2 The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, 11486, Sweden

3 University of Salford, Salford, M6 6PU, UK

4 ETH Zurich, 8092, Switzerland

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Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2012, 5(Suppl 1):K5  doi:10.1186/1757-1146-5-S1-K5

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Published:10 April 2012

© 2012 Arndt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


There are obvious problems involved in the accurate description of movement of the intrinsic bones within the foot and ankle. The 26 small bones are difficult, if not impossible to individually represent with standard skin mounted markers for motion analysis [1,2]. This international research collaboration has performed a number of studies in which invasively inserted intracortical pins are used for anchoring reflective markers, thereby providing a direct representation of the kinematics of the individual segments.

Materials and methods

A number of experimental sessions have been performed at Karolinska Institute. The intracortical pins were inserted by experienced orthopaedic surgeons under sterile conditions and using local anaesthetics (Figure 1). Triads of reflective markers were attached to the protruding ends of the pins and standard video based motion analysis (Qualysis, Sweden) conducted. Data have been published concerning walking [3] and slow running [4] and more recent work has for the first time investigated applied scientific questions such as the effect of shoe manipulations and in-shoe orthotics.

thumbnailFigure 1. Computer tomography images of the marker locations on intracortical pins in foot and ankle segments.


Table 1. Mean total ranges of motion (ROM) and standard deviations of motion about selected joints in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes during walking. Data from six healthy, male subjects. From Lundgren et al., 2008.


A large range of fundamental data concerning foot and ankle kinematics during walking and running and with various manipulations have been collected and will be presented.


  1. Nester C, et al.: Foot kinematics during walking measured using bone and surface mounted markers.

    J Biomech 2007, 40:3412-3423. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  2. Westblad P, et al.: Differences in Ankle-Joint Complex Motion during the Stance Phase of Walking as measured by Superficial or Bone anchored Markers.

    Foot Ankle Int 2002, 23:856-863. PubMed Abstract OpenURL

  3. Lundgren P, et al.: Invasive, in vivo measurement of rear, mid and forefoot motion during walking.

    Gait Posture 2008, 28:93-100. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  4. Arndt A, et al.: Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running.

    J Biomech 2007, 40:2672-2678. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL